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Sikkim: State Overview

Sikkim became 22nd State of India on 26 April 1975 .

Population: of Sikkim as per census 2011 is 610577 and the projected population as per census is 640000 for 2015.

Location: Sikkim lies between 27.04 degree to 28.07 degree North latitude and 80.00 degree to 88.55 degree East longitude.

Area: State in the north-western Himalayan mountain ranges covers a total area of 7,096 square kilometers constituting 0.22 percent of India’s geographical area and 2.7 percent of the Northeast.

Boundaries: Sikkim is a landlocked Indian state located in the Himalayan mountains. The state is bordered by Nepal to the west, China’s Tibet Autonomous Region to the north and east, and Bhutan to the east. The Indian state of West Bengal lies to the south.

Climate: The climate of the state has been roughly divided into the tropical, temperate and alpine zones. For most of the period in a year, the climate is cold and humid as rainfall occurs in each month. The area experiences a heavy rainfall due to its proximity to the Bay of Bengal.

Administrative Division: Sikkim has four districts-East Sikkim, West Sikkim, North Sikkim and South Sikkim. The district capital are Gangtok, Gyalshing, Mangan and Namchi respectively. These four districts are further divided into sixteen subdivisions; Gangtok, Pakyong, Rongli and Rangpo are the subdivisions of the East district. Gyalshing, Dentam, Yuksom and Soreng are the subdivisions of the West district. Mangan, Chungthang, Dzongu and Kabi are the subdivisions of the North district and Namchi, Jorethang, Ravongla and Yangang are the subdivisions of the South district.

Language and Religion: Sikkim has 11 official languages: Nepali (which is its lingua franca), Bhutia, Lepcha, Tamang, Limbu, Newari, Rai, Gurung, Mangar, Sunwar and Sherpa. English is taught in schools and used in government documents. The predominant religions are Hinduism and Vajrayana Buddhism.

Economy: Sikkim’s economy is largely dependent on agriculture and tourism and it is one of the fastest-growing economy in the country. In 2015, Sikkim fully implemented organic farming statewide, becoming India’s first “organic state”.


Health Care, Human Services & Family Welfare Department has been making constant and concerted efforts to formulate & implement schemes (State & Central) to ensure adequate health care services to the people of the State in line with policy directives of the State Govt. issued from time to time and also in line with National Health Policy. Under this endeavor attention is also being paid to take special care of the needs of the people of the BPL families & tribal areas.


To foster a healthy society through provision of quality health care services for all its citizens from womb to tomb and to reach quality health care services up to remotest village of the State.

Under health sector programme main objectives are:

To ensure adequate, qualitative, preventive & curative health care to people of the State.

To provide affordable quality health care to the people of the State, not only through the allopathic systems of medicine but also through the ISM including Amji System of Medicine.

To ensure greater access to primary health care by bringing medical institutions as close to the people as possible or through Mobile Medical health units particularly in the underserved & difficult areas of the State.

To improve hospital services at the primary, secondary & tertiary levels in terms of infrastructure, drugs provision & equitable posting of Medical, Para-Medical & Nursing Personnels.

To impart training to Doctors, Nurses & other Para-Medical staff to upgrade their skills & knowledge by exposing them to workshops, seminars, re-orientation training programmes, and also sponsoring doctors for higher medical education outside the State.

To guarantee to the people of the State free treatment (including free medicines) for major Communicable & Non-Communicable diseases.

To vigorously implement various National programmes & State Plan programmes in the health sector in the State.

Over the past two decades, the health services organization and infrastructure have undergone extensive changes and expansion. This is mainly due to the visionary and dynamic leadership of Shri Pawan Chamling, the Chief Minister of Sikkim

The main thrust of the Government over the past two decades has been to establish a fully functional, community owned, decentralized health delivery system with inter-sectoral convergence at all levels. Recognizing that health of its population is central to development, and that, judicious investment in health sector brings major gains in terms of well being, development and economic productivity, the effort of the Government has been to ensure simultaneous action on a wide range of determinants of health like water, sanitation, education, nutrition, social and gender, equality and institutional integration within the health sector.

The health care initiatives of the State Government over the past two decades have been aimed towards sustainable human development by ensuring equity in health care throughout the State and simultaneously empowering community to attain highest standard of health. Irrespective of location of habitation or social status, the State Government made every effort to ensure access to adequate health care for every citizen with special attention to health care of vulnerable, disadvantaged and underserved sections of the society.

Despite the ever increasing cost of health care compounded by rising demand due to increase in population and better general awareness with a worldwide trend of health care expenditure growing faster than GDP for decades, the Sikkim State has been putting every effort to provide health care free of charges in an efficient, equitable and sustainable manner. Its commitment towards the health sector is evident from the fact that Sikkim Government’s per capita outlay on health sector has been consistently amongst the highest. The State’s high investment on health also recognizes that access to comprehensive health care has a poverty alleviating effect. Consistent priority to health sector by the Government has uniquely positioned the state to enable people to enjoy higher standards of health. As deep rooted in the socio-cultural fabric of Sikkim, a holistic approach is taken to improve and maintain good health of people of Sikkim.

As a result of the sincere and sustained effort coupled with strong political will, the state is able to make significant and substantial progress in health determinants/ parameters in the past two decades. The critical indicators of health including Infant Mortality Rate (IMR), Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR), Disease prevalence, morbidity, as well as mortality rates have shown consistent decline over the last 23 years. These achievements are the cumulative result of improved coverage and efficiency of public health delivery system, together with several inter-linked interventions and changes introduced by the Government of Sikkim. The overall economic upturn as well as improvement in collateral determinants of health has helped the state to substantially ameliorate the sufferings associated with adverse health events and also achieve critical milestones like Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) of 16 (SRS) 2016, Elimination of Leprosy and Elimination of Cretinism in the state.