The Socio-Economic status of the population has direct impact on health seeking behavior of the population. These are very important for planning and implementation of various Health programmes and has significant role in the health outcomes of the community. Some of the important indicator which has direct impact on health has been selected for analysis in this chapter.
|District Code||State/District||Literacy rate(India-73.0 in 2011)|
Source: Census India. 2011.
The literacy rate of Sikkim stands at 76.43% among females and 87.30% among males in 2011. This is marked increase from 60.41% among females and 76.04% males in 2001. Average literacy improved from 68.81% in 2001 to 82.20% in 2011. The literacy is found to be highest in the East districts 84.67% and lowest in the North 77.39%. We expect further improvement in present day literacy since already it is past five years since last census in year 2011.
PER CAPITA NET STATE DOMESTIC PRODUCT AT CURRENT PRICES; BASE YEAR 2011-12.
* Provisional Estimate ** Quick Estimate
Per capita Net SDP is also important indicator for health outcome. Improved State Domestic Product empowers state for undertaking various social and developmental schemes, which can have positive impact on health of the community. The Per Capita Net SDP of the Sikkim has improved significantly. It was Rs 158667 in the year 2011-12 and was Rs 227465 in 2015-16. National per capita during the same period was Rs 63460 in 2011-12 and increased to 93293 during 2015-16.
Distribution of Household by Predominant Material of Roof.
|Sl No||Type of roofing||Sikkim||India|
|1.||Grass, Thatch,Bamboo, Wood,Mud etc||5.7 %||15%|
|2.||Plastic, Polythene||1 %||0.6 %|
|3.||G.I, Metal, Asbestos Sheets||68.2 %||15.9 %|
|5.||Any other material (Machine/hand made tiles,Bricks,Stone Slabs, etc)||2%||39.5 %|
NB: Number of Household – 128131. Source: Census India. 2011.
Type of house a family has is also an important indicator which affects health outcome. In the State 68.2% families have GI/Metal/Asbestos sheets roofing. 23.1% have concrete roof. 5.7% have Grass/ Bamboo/ wood/mud roofs. 1% have Plastic/polythene roof and 2% have roof of any other material. This figure of 2011 census is bound to improve significantly by now. Hundreds of families have been benefitted by free housing schemes launched by Government for poor and underprivileged families every year.
Household having safe Drinking water in the State.
|1.||From Treated source||29.2 %||32.0 %|
|2.||From Untreated Source||56.1 %||11.6 %|
|4.||River, canal, tank, pond, lake, Covered/uncovered well,
Hand pump and Tube well.
|1 %||55.4 %|
|5.||Any other source||2.6%||1.5 %|
NB: Number of households 128131. Source Census India. 2011.
Households having drinking water from treated source in Sikkim is 29.2% which is lower than national average of 32%. Drinking from untreated source in the state is 56.1% significantly higher than national average of 11.6%. Drinking from springs is 11.1% which is higher than national average of 0.5%. 2.6% of household in the State and 1.5% in the country is drinking from any other source not listed above.
Household by Availability of Toilet.
|1.||Toilet within the premises||87.2 %||46.9 %|
|2.||Public Latrine||1.5 %||3.2 %|
|3.||Open||11.3 %||49.8 %|
Source: Census 2011
Availability of Toilet within household is also an important indicator of personal hygiene and health outcome in the community. In the state 87.2% household has been shown to have toilet within household premises. This figure is nearly double of national average of 46.9 %. 11.3% household has been shown to do it in open compared to 49.8 % in India. 1.5 % household in the State is shown to be using public latrines against national average of 3.2 %.
Sikkim became the first Nirmal Rajya in the country for 100% Sanitaion.
Women Empowerment and Gender Based Violence (15-49 yrs).
|Sl. No||Indicators||NFHS 3 (2005-06)||NFHS 4 (2015-16)||NFHS 5 (2019-20)|
|1.||Currently married women who usually participate in three household decisions||93.6 %||95.3 %||89.7 %|
|2.||Ever-married women age 18-49 years who have ever experienced spousal violence||16.3 %||2.6 %||12.1 %|
|3.||Women having a bank or savings account that they themselves use||20.9 %||63.5 %||76.4 %|
In Sikkimese society historically women have been always involved in household decision making. The data too shows that 93.6 % women were involved in decision making during NFHS 3, which has increased to 95 % in NFHS 4 and is currently 89.7 % in NHFS 5. Spouse violence use to be quite prevalent in our society but the data shows marked decrease. It was 16.3 % during 2005-06, decreased significantly to 2.6 % in 2015-16 and is 12.1 % in 2019-20. The women having their own bank account and using them themselves have improved more than three fold in Sikkim. It was 20.9 % during 2005-06, 63.5 during 2015-16 which has further increased to 76.4 % in 2019-20.
Tobacco use and Alcohol consumption among Adults
(age 15-49 yrs).
|Sl. No.||Indicators||NFHS 3 (2005-06)||NFHS 4 (2015-16)||NFHS 5 (2019-20)|
|1.||Women who use any kind of tobacco||18.7 %||7.3 %||11.7 %|
|2.||Men who use any kind of tobacco||61.8 %||40.3 %||41.3 %|
|3.||Women who consume alcohol||19.2 %||23.0 %||16.2 %|
|4.||Men who consume alcohol||45.4 %||51.2 %||39.8 %|
The use of tobacco has gone down significantly in the state. It indicates to some extent success of tobacco ban by the Government of Sikkim. The findings shows that Women using tobacco has gone down from 18.7 % in NFHS 3 to 11.7 % NFHS 5. The men using tobacco has also gone down from 61.8 % during NFHS 3 to 41.3 % in NFHS 5.
The alcohol use is ingrained in majority of Sikkimese culture and society. However, the survey shows decrease in consumption amongst both women and men. Amongst women it has gone down from 19.2 % to 16.2 % and amongst men it has gone down from 45.4 % to 39.8 % during NHFS 3 to NHFS 5.