Demographic characteristics of a State provide an overview of its population size, composition, distribution, changes therein. This has been divided into population statistics and Vital statistics. These indicators will help the states to identify the areas that need policy and interventions, setting long and short terms objectives and also priorities.
These include indicators that measure the population size, sex ratio, density etc.
|Trend in Census Population in Sikkim (1951-2011) Sex Ratio and Growth rate of India for the same period.
|Year||Population||Sex Ratio||Growth Rate|
Source: Census India.
he population of Sikkim during 1951 was 138000, it has shown steady growth to more than three times in 2011. The above table shows some trend of sex ratio vis a vis growth rate trend in Sikkim. The growth rate of Sikkim have not shown steady curve like National growth rate. India’s growth rate from 1971 onwards has shown steady decline, where as Sikkim’s growth rate nearly doubled between 1971 and 1981. It is in this period we have sex ratio not favorable to females. The trend shows that higher the growth rates the sex ratio increases in favor of males. The growth rate projected in the table is natural growth plus immigrating population. Further it is noticed that in 1991 state’s growth rate had declined 28.50 %, there is marked improvement of sex ratio to 878 from 835. Again growth rate increased in 2001 to 33.30 %, there was decline in sex ratio. In 2011 growth rate has declined considerably leading to marked improvement in sex ratio favoring females.
Projected Population of Sikkim
Source: Census India.
The Population of state has been projected at six lakhs thirty thousand in 2014, Six lakhs forty thousand in 2015 and six lakhs forty seven thousand in 2016. Hence for planning exercises we can used this figures. The sex ratio scenario does not seem to favour females as per the projected population of females.
Distribution of Population District wise, Decadal Growth Rate, Sex-Ratio and Population Density
|Population 2011||Percentage decadal growth rate of population||Sex- Ratio
(Number of Females per 1000 Males)
|Population density per sq. km.|
Source: Census India.
The North District is the least populated district in Sikkim with a population of 43709. East is the most populated district with a population of 283583.Percentage of decadal growth rate is highest in the south with 33.39 % growth during 1991. It was lowest in the west district 25.57 % during 1991. In 2011 growth is highest in the east 14.80 % and lowest in the north 5.67 %.
Sex ratio found to be lowest in the north though there is improvement from 752 to 769 from 2001 to 2011. West district has the best sex ratio and has improved from 929 to 941 from 2001 to 2011. The sex ratio of the state has improved from 875 in 2001 to 890 in 2011. In 2011 India’s sex ratio was 943.
Density of population has shown increase in consecutive censuses and has increased in 2001 to 2011 too. It is highest in the East district with 295/sq.km and lowest in the north 10/sq.km. Average density of the state is 86. Average density of the country was 382/ sq km during 2011.
Sex Ratio 0-6 years district wise/state
Table 1.1.5 the sex ratio (0-6) yrs which is vital indicator for prevalence of female infanticide is good in the state. It was 965 in 1991 census and 957 in 2011. Among the districts too, it is good and uniform in all the four districts. NFHS 3 the sex ratio of the state was 936 and it has drastically gone down to 809 in NFHS 4. In NFHS 4 the urban 0-6 yrs sex ratio is only 632.
Proportion of Child Population in the Age-Group 0-6 to Total Population:
|State/District||Proportion of Child Population in the Age-Group 0-6 to Total Population|
Child population age group 0-6 years is vital component of population statistics. This would be very vital for planning and implementation of various Infants and children centric programmes and schemes. It gives some indication on vital issue of sex ratio. The table shows in 2001 west districts has the largest number, 16.35 % and east district had the lowest proportion at 12.82 %. The state’s average in 2001 was 14.5 %. In 2001 in all districts female population was higher than the male. In 2011 proportion decreased in all districts. Female population is seen to be less in all the districts. It’s lowest in the east districts. The average proportion at state level in 2011 was 10.4 %.
Vital Health Indicators of Sikkim.
These include indicators such as birth rate, death rate, natural growth rate, and mortality and fertility rates.
Trend of Crude Birth Rate India/Sikkim
The Crude birth rate is calculated as number of birth per thousand populations. The Crude Birth rate of India is showing steady decline. It was 24.1 in 2004 and has come down to 20.4 in 2016. The State has also shown similar trend, it was 19.5 in the year 2004 and 16.6 in the year 2016. The state’s CBR is lower than National average.
Trend of Crude Death Rate India/Sikkim
The crude death rate is calculated as number of Death per thousand populations. India’s CDR was 7.5 in 2004 and declined to 6.4 in 2016. Similarly Sikkim’s CDR was 4.7 in 2016. The rate was 4.9 in 2004 and shot up to 7.6 in 2005, then showed steady decline till 2008. The rate increased to 5.7 in 2009 thereafter has shown decline to 4.7 in 2016.
Trend of Natural Growth India/Sikkim
The natural Growth rate is difference between CBR and CDR. the National average has declined from 17.3 in 2004 to 14 in 2016. Similarly State’s Natural Growth Rate has decline from 14.6 in 2004 to 11.9 in 2016. The state has lower NGR than National average.
Trend of Infant Mortality India/Sikkim.
Infant Mortality Rate is one of the most important indicators accepted worldwide, which indicate Health of Child in the community. IMR is calculated as number of Infants deaths per 1000 live births. Trend shows steady decline in National and State’s average but during 2006-09 there was slight increase in state’s average. National average declined from 58 in 2004 to 34 in 2016. Whereas, State’s figure declined from 32in 2004 to 16 in 2016.
Trend of Total Fertility Rate India/Sikkim
shows the TFR of the state and the Nation. During NFHS II TFR of India was 2.9 and TFR of Sikkim was 2.75. The TFR of Sikkim showed rapid decline to 2.02, the national decline in TFR during the same period was 2.7. The NFHS IV has shown more alarming decline of states TFR to 1.2. The figure indicates states TFR has gone far below the replacement level of 2.1. This is the goal of the family planning programme of the country. Hence policy maker in the state needs to rethink about present strategy and further probe into the issue.
Regarding the issue of declining T.F.R. workshop was held at Gangtok with the experts from the Ministry and Health Officials. The experts from Ministry had some discussions about the available data and suggested State to conduct its own survey since Sikkim has a very small population.